How do fats differ from proteins nucleic acids and polysaccharides
- 2.3 Biological Molecules
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- Biological macromolecules review
- How do lipids differ from other macromolecules?
2.3 Biological Molecules
Carbohydrates- di and polysaccharides - Chemical processes - MCAT - Khan Academyand
Lipid , any of a diverse group of organic compounds including fats , oils , hormones , and certain components of membranes that are grouped together because they do not interact appreciably with water. One type of lipid, the triglycerides , is sequestered as fat in adipose cells , which serve as the energy-storage depot for organisms and also provide thermal insulation. Some lipids such as steroid hormones serve as chemical messengers between cells , tissues , and organs , and others communicate signals between biochemical systems within a single cell. The membranes of cells and organelles structures within cells are microscopically thin structures formed from two layers of phospholipid molecules. Membranes function to separate individual cells from their environments and to compartmentalize the cell interior into structures that carry out special functions. So important is this compartmentalizing function that membranes, and the lipids that form them, must have been essential to the origin of life itself. Water is the biological milieu—the substance that makes life possible—and almost all the molecular components of living cells, whether they be found in animals, plants, or microorganisms, are soluble in water.
In terms of chemical composition, lipids differ from nucleic acids and proteins because they mostly just contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen except for phospholipids which of course contain phosphorous. In addition to those elements, proteins contain nitrogen and sulfur , and nucleic acids contain nitrogen and phosphorous. Carbohydrates share the C, H, and O composition as lipids, but they differ in structure.
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Biology — or informally, life itself — is characterized by elegant macromolecules that have evolved over hundreds of millions of years to serve a range of critical functions. These are often categorized into four basic types: carbohydrates or polysaccharides , lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. If you have any background in nutrition, you will recognize the first three of these as the three standard macronutrients or "macros," in dieting parlance listed on nutritional information labels. The fourth pertains to two closely related molecules that serve as the basis for the storage and translation of genetic information in all living things. Each of these four macromolecules of life, or biomolecules, performs a variety of duties; as you might expect, their different roles are exquisitely related to their various physical components and arrangements.
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Disaccharides and polysaccharides - Chemical processes - MCAT - Khan Academy
Biological macromolecules review
Many of the molecules found within cells are macromolecules, polymers of high molecular weight assembled from relatively simple precursors. Polysaccharides, proteins, and nucleic acids, which may have molecular weights ranging from tens of thousands to in the case of DNA billions, are produced by the polymerization of relatively small subunits with molecular weights of or less. The synthesis of macromolecules is a major energy-consuming activity of cells. Macromolecules themselves may be further assembled into supramolecular complexes, forming functional units such as ribosomes, membranes, and organelles. Table shows the major classes of biomolecules in a representative single-celled organism, Escherichia coli.
How do lipids differ from other macromolecules?
Lipids are organic compounds that contain the same elements as carbohydrates: carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. However, the hydrogen-to-oxygen ratio is always greater than More important for biological systems, the carbon-to-hydrogen bonds are nonpolar covalent, which means that lipids are fat soluble and will not dissolve in water. There are four biologically important lipids:. Fats are large molecules that are composed of three fatty acid molecules bonded to a glycerol molecule. The fatty acid molecule is a long chain of covalently bonded carbon atoms with nonpolar bonds to hydrogen atoms all along the carbon chain with a carboxyl group attached to one end. Because the carbon-hydrogen bonds are nonpolar, the chain is hydrophobic , meaning they are not water soluble.
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There are four major families of macromolecules proteins, nucleic acids, polysaccharides and lipids that make up the bulk of the carbon content in a typical cell. In the previous tutorial we reviewed the structure and properties of proteins. In this tutorial we will examine the structures and properties of nucleic acids, polysaccharides and lipids. We will explore the distinct characteristics these macromolecules possess and review the roles they play in a typical cell. By the end of this tutorial you should know:. Nucleic acids are macromolecules that store, transmit and express the genetic information of a cell.
Watch a video about Proteins and Enzymes. The large molecules necessary for life that are built from smaller organic molecules are called biological macromolecules. There are four major classes of biological macromolecules carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids , and each is an important component of the cell and performs a wide array of functions. Biological macromolecules are organic, meaning that they contain carbon. In addition, they may contain hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, and additional minor elements. It is the bonding properties of carbon atoms that are responsible for its important role.
Macromolecules of Life: Carbohydrates and Lipids January 28, Readings: Starr, Chapter 3 pages , The object of opening the mind, as of opening the mouth, is to shut it again on something solid. Living matter is made of cells, but what are cells made of? Cells are made of molecules based on based on 4 main chemical elements: carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen plus lots of other elements and the many compounds that can be made from combining these elements. Cells put the chemical "building blocks" C , O , H , and N and others together to make useful molecules for food and energy that allow them to perform the 5 functions of life. Enzymatic reactions inside cells join together small organic molecules monomers ; building blocks to form large molecules polymers by a process called dehydration synthesis , to make Macromolecules :.