Predict the hybridization and geometry around each indicated atom
8.2 Hybrid Atomic Orbitals
This problem has been solved! See the answer. Predict the hybridization and geometry around each indicated atom. Predict the hybridization and geometry.and
Thinking in terms of overlapping atomic orbitals is one way for us to explain how chemical bonds form in diatomic molecules. However, to understand how molecules with more than two atoms form stable bonds, we require a more detailed model. As an example, let us consider the water molecule, in which we have one oxygen atom bonding to two hydrogen atoms. Oxygen has the electron configuration 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 4 , with two unpaired electrons one in each of the two 2 p orbitals. Valence bond theory would predict that the two O—H bonds form from the overlap of these two 2 p orbitals with the 1 s orbitals of the hydrogen atoms. Experimental evidence shows that the bond angle is
We can find the hybridization of an atom by finding its steric number. A neutral carbon atom has 4 valence electrons, and so if it can share all these 4 electrons with other atoms in forming 4 covalent bonds, its octet can be complete. Here, the carbon is sharing only three of those electrons, thereby forming three bonds. So, it still should have one electron left on it, which is not indicated in the diagram. Or it is also possible, that the carbon is in form of anion, having accepted one extra electron form an outer source, and completing its octet.
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Orbital Hybridization And Bond Strengths. This will save you a lot of time. Chemists like time-saving shortcuts just as much as anybody else, and learning to quickly interpret line diagrams is as fundamental to organic chemistry as learning the alphabet is to written English. Try picking out the hybridization of the atoms in this highly poisonous molecule made by the frog in funky looking pyjamas, below right. A and B especially. Although as with many things, explaining the shortcut takes about 2 minutes, while explaining the exceptions takes about 10 times longer. Helpfully, these exceptions fall into two main categories.
How To Determine Hybridization: A Shortcut
Hybridization was introduced to explain molecular structure when the valence bond theory failed to correctly predict them. It is experimentally observed that bond angles in organic compounds are close to o , o , or o. According to Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion VSEPR theory, electron pairs repel each other and the bonds and lone pairs around a central atom are generally separated by the largest possible angles. Carbon is a perfect example showing the need for hybrid orbitals. As you know, Carbon's ground state configuration is:. According to Valence Bond Theory , carbon should form two covalent bonds, resulting in a CH 2 , because it has two unpaired electrons in its electronic configuration.