How can the rate of reaction be measured

Reaction Rate

how can the rate of reaction be measured

If the reaction produces a precipitate, the amount formed can be used to determine reaction rate by measuring how long it takes for the forming precipitate to.

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The method for determining a reaction rate is relatively straightforward. Since a reaction rate is based on change over time, it must be determined from tabulated values or found experimentally. With the obtained data, it is possible to calculate the reaction rate either algebraically or graphically. What follows is general guidance and examples of measuring the rates of a reaction. Measuring time change is easy; a stopwatch or any other time device is sufficient. However, determining the change in concentration of the reactants or products involves more complicated processes. The change of concentration in a system can generally be acquired in two ways:.

The rate at which chemical substances react varies greatly. A nail can take years to rust, whereas explosives detonate in thousandths of a second. Generally, a reaction rate involves the change in the concentration of a substance over a given period of time. You calculate the rate of reaction by dividing the change in concentration by the elapsed time. You can also determine the rate of a reaction graphically, by finding the slope of the concentration curve.

The rate of a reaction is a measure of how quickly a reactant is used up, or a product is formed. There are different ways to determine the rate of a reaction. The method chosen usually depends on the reactants and products involved, and how easy it is to measure changes in them. The mean rate of reaction can be calculated using either of these two equations:. The change in mass of a reactant or product can be followed during a reaction. This method is useful when carbon dioxide is a product which leaves the reaction container.

The rate of a reaction is usually observed by watching the disappearance of a reactant or the appearance of a product within a given time period. Take the chemical reaction:. The limit of this average rate as the time interval becomes smaller is called the rate of appearance of C at time t, and it is the slope of the curve of [C] versus t at time t. Since one molecule of A and two molecules of B are consumed for every three molecules of C that are produced, the rates of disappearance and appearance of these chemical species are different, but related. How the rate of a reaction is measured will depend on what the reaction is and what product forms.

The rate of a reaction is a measure of how quickly a reactant is used up, or a product is formed. For a chemical reaction to happen:. A collision that produces a reaction is called a successful collision. The activation energy is the minimum amount of energy needed for a collision to be successful. It is different for different reactions. Colliding particles.

Chemical reactions vary greatly in the speed at which they occur. Some are essentially instantaneous, while others may take years to reach equilibrium. The Reaction Rate for a given chemical reaction is the measure of the change in concentration of the reactants or the change in concentration of the products per unit time. The speed of a chemical reaction may be defined as the change in concentration of a substance divided by the time interval during which this change is observed:. Notice the minus signs in the first two examples above. Since negative rates do not make much sense, rates expressed in terms of a reactant concentration are always preceded by a minus sign to make the rate come out positive.

Measuring Rates of Reaction


14.2: Measuring Reaction Rates






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