A political effect of the enlightenment was that quizlet

What Was the Enlightenment?

a political effect of the enlightenment was that quizlet

The Enlightenment: John Locke

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Enlightenment Influence on America. Search this site. The Revolution. The Declaration of Independence. US Bill of Rights. Works Cited.

John Locke is among the most influential political philosophers of the modern period. In the Two Treatises of Government , he defended the claim that men are by nature free and equal against claims that God had made all people naturally subject to a monarch.
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All these factors created a revolutionary atmosphere and a tricky situation for Louis XVI. In order to resolve the crisis, the king summoned the Estates-General in May and, as it came to an impasse, the representatives of the Third Estates formed a National Assembly , against the wishes of the king, signaling the outbreak of the French Revolution. The essence of the revolutionary situation which existed in France in the s was the bankruptcy of the king , and hence the state. This economic crisis was due to the rapidly increasing costs of government and to the overwhelming costs incurred by fighting two major wars: the Seven Years' War and the American Revolutionary War. Since the s, several attempts by different ministers to introduce financial stability had failed. As a result, there was "an insistent demand" for reform of these abuses of privilege, for an equitable means of taxation and for improved government processes.

The 18th century is known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason. Historians do not necessarily cut off historic periods strictly by dates, and the portion of the 18th century known as the Age of Reason generally refers to the period from through The year saw the beginning of the French Revolution. Dates aside, the Age of Reason was an age of extraordinary intellectual ferment. The scientific revolution, which had begun approximately a century earlier, transformed the way people looked at problems, not only in the realm of science, but in the general realm of public affairs.



7a. The Impact of Enlightenment in Europe

The Enlightenment

The Age of Reason , as it was called, was spreading rapidly across Europe. In the late 17th century, scientists like Isaac Newton and writers like John Locke were challenging the old order. Newton's laws of gravity and motion described the world in terms of natural laws beyond any spiritual force. In the wake of political turmoil in England, Locke asserted the right of a people to change a government that did not protect natural rights of life, liberty and property. People were beginning to doubt the existence of a God who could predestine human beings to eternal damnation and empower a tyrant for a king. Europe would be forever changed by these ideas. In America, intellectuals were reading these ideas as well.

Enlightenment Thinkers

This horribly destructive war, which lasted from to , compelled German writers to pen harsh criticisms regarding the ideas of nationalism and warfare. These authors, such as Hugo Grotius and John Comenius , were some of the first Enlightenment minds to go against tradition and propose better solutions. Finally, centuries of mistreatment at the hands of monarchies and the church brought average citizens in Europe to a breaking point, and the most intelligent and vocal finally decided to speak out. The Enlightenment developed through a snowball effect: small advances triggered larger ones, and before Europe and the world knew it, almost two centuries of philosophizing and innovation had ensued. From these discoveries emerged a system for observing the world and making testable hypotheses based on those observations. At the same time, however, scientists faced ever-increasing scorn and skepticism from people in the religious community, who felt threatened by science and its attempts to explain matters of faith. The first major Enlightenment figure in England was Thomas Hobbes , who caused great controversy with the release of his provocative treatise Leviathan

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    A French political philosopher whose major work, The Spirit of Laws, was a major contribution to In the 's, what was an effect of the Enlightenment?.

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